There are considerable variations in the productivity of plots growing teff across Ethiopia. The major drivers for productivity differences appear to be the levels of input use, the management practices employed, the age of the operator, the ease of access to markets, and the level of engagement in extension efforts. The findings lead to a number of policy implications. First, there are high rates of return to investments in the development of better seed varieties. Second, the payoff to investments in extension efforts is also high. Third, targeting efforts to increase women’s access to teff plots will improve incomes for women. Fourth, reducing the costs of remoteness through the construction of rural roads and increasing distribution outlets of modern inputs is likely to have a positive impact on teff productivity. Finally, innovations that reduce labour requirements for growing teff might satisfy the increasing demands for teff at an affordable price.